How Emotional Intelligence fits in with Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership is one of leadership based largely on the leaderís personal behaviors which has a substantial impact on followers and can potentially renew an entire organization (Yunus & Anuar, 2012). This is why an effective leader especially a transformational leader must have good emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is positively correlated with three components of transformational leadership (idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and individualized consideration) (Rashid & Waheed, 2012).
Transformational leadership is not used evenly by both genders; this is mostly due to emotional intelligence. Transformational leadership has illustrated that women are more transformational than men, as the characteristics of a transformational leadership style are related to feminine gender characteristics (Lopez-Zafra, Garcia-Retamero, & Berrios Martos, 2012). Women score higher in emotional intelligence than their male counterparts, and if emotional intelligence is considered a most needed ability for effective leadership, especially useful as organizations go through transformations, then women may possess a unique and timely leadership quality (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003). On average women are better than men at some emotional skills, some men will still be better than most women, despite there being a statistically significant difference between the groups (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003). Because women on average have a higher emotional intelligence, women will behave differently and use different behaviors to influence. Supportive (e.g., intellectual stimulation) and considerate (e.g., individual consideration) behaviors are typical of transformational leaders and are related to feminine gender roles (Lopez-Zafra, Garcia-Retamero, & Berrios Martos, 2012).
Emotional Intelligence and Transactional Leadership
Transformational leadership is more related to emotional intelligence than transactional leadership (Quader, 2011). Transactional leadership is considered more of a masculine leadership role; this is because not as much emotional intelligence is needed. Since men and women have different emotional intelligence on average, different leadership roles will be filled by different genders. Women experience slight disadvantages in masculine leader roles, whereas roles that are more feminine offer them some advantages (Northouse, 2012). Masculine leadership roles are leadership roles such as the ones found in the army. Men have more masculine leadership roles and have less emotional intelligence; this is why men make greater use of the transactional leadership style than women (Quader, 2011).
Lopez-Zafra, E., Garcia-Retamero, R., & Berrios Martos, M. (2012). The relationship between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence from a gender approach. Psychological Record, 62(1), 97-114.
Mandell, B., & Pherwani, S. (2003). Relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership style: a gender comparison. Journal of Business & Psychology, 17(3), 387-404.
Northouse, P. (2012). Leadership: Theory and practice. (6 ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publishing.
Quader, M. (2011). Leadership style and emotional intelligence: a gender comparison. Annamalai International Journal of Business Studies & Research, 3(1), 1-23.
Rashid, R., & Waheed, A. (2012). Transformational leadership style as predictor of decision making styles: moderating role of emotional intelligence. Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, 6(2), 257-268.
Yunus, N., & Anuar, S. (2012). Trust as moderating effect between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership styles. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(10), 650-663.