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ITIL - Processes in the Service operation are:

Service Operational
The primary objective of Service Operation is to enable effectiveness and efficiency in delivery and support of IT services.

= Service Desk To support the agreed IT service provision by ensuring the accessibility and availability of the IT organization and by performing various supporting activities.


= Technical Management To help plan, implement and maintain a stable technical infrastructure to support the organization's business processes through:
- Well designed and highly resilient, cost effective topology;
- The use of adequate technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure in optimum condition;
- Swift use of technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures that do occur.

= IT Operations Management To perform the daily operational activities needed to manage the IT infrastructure.

IT Operations Management has to functions. IT Operations Control and Facilities Management

IT Operations Control generally staffed by shifts of operators and ensures that routine operational tasks are carried out.
Facilities Management- Management of the physical IT environment.
= Application Management To help design, implement and maintain stable applications to support the organization's business processes.

Processes in the Service operation are:
- Event Management
- Incident Management
- Problem Management
- Request Fulfillment
- Access Management

= Event Management The goal of Event Management is to provide the capability to detect events, make sense of them and determine the appropriate control action.

= Incident Management To restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse impact on business operations, thus ensuring that the best possible levels of service quality and availability are maintained.

If we had our gardens and lawns being affected by weeds, how would we address the situation?
Incident Management: Use techniques that address the symptoms but still allow the weeds to grow back (e.g. Pull them out, mow over them, use a hedge-trimmer, and but a goat)
Problem Management: Use techniques that address the root-cause of the symptoms, so that weeds will no longer grow (e.g. Use poison, dig roots out, re-lawn, concrete over etc.)

= Problem Management Problem Management is responsible for managing lifecycle of all problems. The primary objectives of Problem Management are:
- To prevent problems and resulting incidents from happening
- To eliminate recurring incidents
- To minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented

Workaround The pre-defined and documented technique in which to restore functionality to the user with the required functionality. A workaround is NOT a permanent solution, and only addresses the symptoms of errors.


The two main activities of Proactive Problem Management are:
Trend Analysis
- Review reports from other processes (e.g. trends in incidents, availability levels, relationships with changes and releases)
- Identify recurring Problems or training opportunities for IT staff, customers and end users.
Targeting Preventative Action
- Perform a cost-benefit analysis of all costs associated with prevention
- Target specific areas taking up the most support attention
- Coordinate preventative action with Availability and Capacity Management, focusing on vulnerable areas of the infrastructure (e.g. single points of failure, components reaching full capacity/utilization).


The activities of Reactive Problem Management are similar to those of Incident Management for the logging, categorization and classification for Problems. The subsequent activities are different as this is where the actual root-cause analysis is performed and the Known Error corrected.

Overview of Reactive Problem Management activities:
1. Problem detection
2. Problem logging
3. Problem categorization
4. Problem investigation and diagnosis
5. Workarounds (attached to the Problem or Known Error record)
6. Raising a Known Error record
7. Problem resolution
8. Problem closure
9. Major Problem reviews

Major Problem Review:
After every major problem, while memories are still fresh, a review should be conducted to learn any lessons for the future. Specifically the review should examine:
- Those things that were done correctly
- Those things that were done wrong
- What could be done better in the future?
- How to prevent recurrence
- Whether there has been any third-party responsibility and whether follow-up actions are needed.

Such reviews can be used as part of training and awareness activities for staff any lessons learned should be documented in appropriate procedures, working instructions, diagnostic scripts or Known Error Records.


= Request Fulfillment Request Fulfillment is concerned with fulfilling requests from the end user community using consistent and repeatable methods.

= Access Management = Access Management's primary objective is to provide capabilities for the granting of authorized users the right to use a service while preventing access to non-authorized users.

What is the best definition of an Incident Model?
- A set of pre-defined steps to be followed when dealing with a known type of incident

What is the difference between a Known Error and a Problem?
- The underlying cause of a Known Error is known, The underlying cause of a Problem is not known

Information is regularly exchanged between Problem Management and Change Management. What information is this?
- RFCs resulting from Known Errors

Incident Management has a value to the business by?
- Contribution to the reduction of impact

The best definition of an event is?
- An occurrence that is significant for the management of the IT infrastructure or delivery of service

Which of the following best describes the purpose of event management?
- The ability to detect events, analyze them and determine the appropriate control action

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