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Managing Mass Communications: Advertising, Sales Promotions, Events and Experiences

After reading this chapter, students should:
C) Know what steps are involved in developing an advertising program
D) Know how sales promotion decisions should be made
E) Know what are the guidelines for effective brand-building events and experiences
F) Know how companies can exploit the potential of public relations and publicity

Although there has been an enormous increase in the use of personal communications by marketers in recent years, the fact remains that mass media, if used correctly, can still dramatically improve the fortunes of a brand or company. Marketers are trying to come to grips with how to best use mass media in the new communication environment.
Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.

8) Ads can be a cost-effective way to disseminate message, whether to build a brand preference or to educate people.
B) In developing an advertising program, marketing managers must always start by identifying the target market and buyer motives.
C) They then can make the five major decisions known as "the 5Ms":
7. Mission: What are the advertising objectives?
8. Money: How much to spend?
9. Message: What message should be sent?
10. Media: What media should be used?
11. Measurement: How should the results be evaluated?
Setting the Objectives

The advertising objectives must flow from prior decisions on target market, brand positioning, and the marketing program.

A) An advertising goal (or objective) is a specific communication task and achievement level to be accomplished with a specific audience in a specific period of time
B) Advertising objective can be classified according to whether their aim is to:
1) Informative advertising
2) Persuasive advertising
3) Reminder advertising
4) Reinforcement advertising
C) Each aim at different stages in the hierarchy of effects discussed in Chapter 17
D) Information advertising aims to create brand awareness and knowledge of new products or new features of existing products.
E) Persuasive advertising aims to create liking, preference, conviction, and purchase of a product or service.
F) Reminder advertising aims to stimulate repeat purchase of products and services.
G) Reinforcement advertising aims to convince purchasers that they made the right choice.
H) The advertising objective should emerge from a thorough analysis of the current marketing situation.

Deciding On the Advertising Budget

How does a company know if it is spending the right amount?

C) Although advertising is treated as a current expense, part of it really is an investment in building brand equity.
D) Factors affecting budget decisions. Here are five specific factors to consider when setting the advertising budget:
1) Stage in the product life cycle
2) Market share and consumer base
3) Competition and clutter
4) Advertising frequency
5) Product substitutability
Advertising Elasticity
The predominant response function for advertising is often concave but can be S-shaped.
Developing the Advertising Campaign
In designing and evaluating an ad campaign, marketers employ both art and science to develop the message strategy or positioning of an ad - what the ad attempts to convey about the brand- and its creative strategy - how the ad expresses the brand claim.
Message Generation and Evaluation
A good ad normally focuses on one or two core selling propositions.
A) Creative brief
B) Positioning statement
Creative Development and Execution
The ad's impact depends not only on what is said, but often more importantly, on how it says it. Message execution can be decisive.
4) In preparing an ad campaign, the advertiser can prepare a copy strategy statement describing the:
e. Objective
f. Content
g. Support
h. Tone of the desired ad
B) Every advertising medium has specific advantages and disadvantages.
Television Ads

Television is generally acknowledged as the most powerful advertising medium and reaches a broad spectrum of consumers.
9) The wide reach translates to low cost per exposure.
10) From a brand-building perspective, TV advertising has two particularly important strengths:
k. If can be an effective means of vividly demonstrating product attributes and persuasively explaining their corresponding consumer benefits
l. TV advertising can be a compelling means for dramatically portraying user and usage imagery, brand personality, and other brand tangibles.
C) Television advertising also has its drawbacks
9) Because of the fleeting nature of the message and the potentially distracting creative elements, product-related messages and the brand itself can be overlooked.
10) The large number of ads and non-programming material creates clutter that makes it easy for consumers to ignore or forget ads.
11) TV advertising has high costs in production and placement.
D) Properly designed and executed TV ads can improve brand equity and affect sales and profits.
1) A well-done TV commercial can still be a powerful marketing tool.
Print Ads
Print media offers a stark contrast to broadcast media.
5) Print media can provide much detailed product information and can also effectively communicate user and usage imagery.
6) However, the static nature of the visual images makes it difficult to provide dynamic presentations or demonstrations.
7) It also can be a fairly passive medium.
8) The two main print media-newspapers and magazines- have many of the same advantages and disadvantages.
J) Newspapers are timely and pervasive.
K) Magazines are more effective at building user and usage imagery.
9) Format elements such as ad size, color, and illustration affect a print ad's impact.
10) Researchers studying print advertisements report that the:
k. Picture
l. Headline
m. Copy (are important in that order)
Radio Ads
Radio is a pervasive medium.
A) Radio's main advantage is flexibility:
Stations are very targeted.
Ads are relatively inexpensive to produce and place.
Short closing allow for quick response.
B) Radio is particularly effective in the morning.
1) It allows a company to achieve a balance between broad and localized market coverage.
C) The obvious disadvantages of radio are:
H) The lack of visual images
I) Relatively passive nature of the consumer processing that results.
Legal and Social Issues
Advertisers and their agencies must be sure advertising does not overstep social and legal norms. Public policy makers have developed a substantial body of laws and regulations to govern advertising.
A) Under U.S. law, advertisers must not:
10) Make false claims
11) Must avoid false demonstrations
12) It is illegal in the United States to create ads that have the capacity to deceive
m. The problem is how to tell the difference between deception and "puffery"-simple exaggerations not intended to be believed that are permitted by law.
14) Sellers are legally obligated to avoid bait-and-switch advertising that attracts buyers under false pretenses.
B) Advertisers must be careful not to offend the general public as well as any ethnic groups, racial minorities, or special-interest groups.

After choosing the message, the advertiser's next task is to choose media to carry it. The steps here are deciding on desired reach, frequency, and impact; choosing among major media types; selecting specific media vehicles; deciding on media timing; and deciding on geographical media allocation. Then the results of these decisions need to be evaluated.
Deciding On Reach, Frequency, and Impact
Media selection is finding the most cost-effective media to deliver the desired number and type of exposures to the target audience.
A) What do we mean by the desired number of exposures?
1)) The advertiser is seeking a specified advertising objective and response from the target audience.
B) The next task is to find out how many exposures will produce a level of audience awareness.
C) The effect of exposures on audience awareness depends on the exposures.
L) Reach
M) Frequency
N) Impact
There are important trade-offs among reach, frequency, and impact, namely budget dollars.
o. The relationship between reach, frequency, and impact is captured in the following concepts:
)3 Total number of exposures (E) is reach times the average frequency: E = R x F
2) Weighted number of exposures (WE) is the reach times average frequency times average impact: WE = R x F x I
E) The media planner has to figure out the most cost-effective combination of reach, frequency, and impact.
F) Reach is most important when:
P) Launching new products
Q) Flanker brands
R) Extensions of well-known brands
S) Infrequently purchased goods
T) Going after an undefined target market
G) Frequency is most important where:
F) There are strong competitors.
G) A complex store to tell
H) High consumer resistance
I) A frequent-purchase cycle
H) Many advertisers believe a target audience needs a large number of exposures for the advertising to work.
1) Others doubt the value of high frequency.
I) Another factor arguing for repetition is that of forgetting.
7) The higher the forgetting rate associated with a brand, the higher the warranted level of repetition.
8) Ads wear out and viewers tune them out so repetition is not enough.
9) Advertisers should insist on fresh ads.
Choosing Among Major Media Types

The media planner has to know the capacity of the major advertising media types to deliver reach, frequency, and impact.

A) Media planners make their choices by considering the following variables:
D) Target audiences' media habits
E) Product characteristics
F) Message characteristics
G) Cost
B) Given the abundance of media, the planner must first decide how to allocate the budget to the major media types.
C) The distribution must be planned with the awareness that people are increasingly time-starved.
D) Attention is becoming a scarce currency, and advertisers need strong devices to capture people's attention.
E) Marketers must also recognize that consumer response can be S-shaped: An ad threshold effect exists where some positive amount of advertising is necessary before any sales impact can be detected, but sales increase eventually flatten out.
Alternative Advertising Options

Many marketers are looking for alternative advertising media.

Place Advertising
Place advertising, also called out-of-home advertising, is a broadly defined category that captures many different alternative advertising forms.
8. Marketers are using creative and unexpected ad placement to grab consumer's attention.
9. The rationale is that marketers are better off reaching people in other environments, such as where they:
j. Work
k. Play
l. Shop
C) Some of the options available include:
Public places
Product placement
)A Billboards now use colorful, digitally produced graphics, backlighting, sounds, movement, and even three-dimensional images.
)B Billboards do not have to be fixed. Marketers can buy space on billboard-laden trucks.
Public Spaces
A) Advertisers are placing traditional TV and print ads in unconventional places such as:
4) Movies
5) Airlines
6) Lounges
7) Classrooms
8) Sports arenas
9) Hotel elevators
10) Other public places
B) Advertisers can buy space in:
Garbage cans
Bicycle racks
Other places
Product Placement
)A Product placement has expanded from movies to all types of TV shows.
)B Marketers pay fees of $50,000 to $100,000 and higher for cameo appearances in movies and on television shows.
)C Product placements can be combined with special promotions to publicize entertainment tie-ins.
)D Some firms get product placement at no cost by supplying their product to the movie company.
)E Marketers are finding other inventive ways to advertise during actual television broadcasts.
)1 Virtual logos networks add digitally to the playing field.
)2 Ads also appear in best-selling paperback books and movie videotapes.
)F Advertorials are print ads that offer editorial content that reflects favorably on the brand and is difficult to distinguish from newspaper or magazine content.
)G Other firms are exploring branded entertainment such as online mini-films.

There are many ways to communicate with consumers at the point-of-purchase (POP)
A) In-store advertising includes ads:
1) On shopping carts
2) Cart straps
3) Aisles and shelves
4) In-store demonstrations
5) Live sampling
6) Instant coupon machines
B) The appeal of point-of-purchasing advertising lies in the fact that numerous studies show that in many product categories consumers make the bulk of their final brand decisions in the store
I) One study suggested that 70 percent of all buying decisions are made in the store
J) In-store advertising is designed to increase the number of spontaneous buying decisions
7) Evaluating Alternative Media
The main advantage of non-traditional media is that a very precise and captive audience often can be reached in a cost-effective manner.

I) The challenge with non-traditional media is demonstrating its reach and effectiveness through credible, independent research.
J) These new marketing strategies must be judged on how they contribute, directly or indirectly, to brand equity.
K) There has been some consumer backlash when people see ads in traditionally ad-free spaces.
L) Perhaps because of the sheer pervasiveness of advertising, consumer seem to be less bothered by non-traditional media now than in the past.
M) Consumers must be favorably affected in some way to justify the marketing expenditures for non-traditional media.
Selecting Specific Vehicles

The media planner must search for the most cost-effective vehicles within each chosen media type.

C) In making choices, the planner has to rely on measurement services that provide estimates of audience size, composition, and media cost.
D) Audience size has several possible measures:
Effective audience
Effective ad-exposed audience
C) Media planner calculates the cost per thousand persons reached by a vehicle.
D) Several adjustments have to be applied to the cost-per-thousand measure:
G) The measure should be adjusted for audience quality.
H) The exposure value should be adjusted for the audience-attention probability.
I) The exposed value should be adjusted for the magazine's editorial quality (prestige and believability).
J) The exposure value should be adjusted for the magazine's ad placement policies and extra services.
E) Many magazines often put together a "reader profile" for their advertisers, summarizing the characteristics of the magazines' readers with respect to age, income, residence, marital status, and leisure activities.
Deciding On Media Timing and Allocation
In choosing media, the advertiser faces both a macro scheduling and a micro-scheduling problem.
The macro-scheduling problem involves scheduling the advertising in relation to seasons and the business cycle.
The micro-scheduling problem calls for allocating advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain maximum impact.
C) The most effective pattern depends on the communication objectives in relation to the:
J) Product
K) Target customers
L) Distribution channels
M) Other marketing factors
D) The timing pattern should also consider three factors:
G) Buyer turnover: the higher this rate, the more continuous the advertising should be.
H) Purchase frequency: the higher the purchase frequency, the more continuous the advertising should be.
I) Forgetting rate: the higher the forgetting rate, the more continuous the advertising should be.
E) In launching a new product, the advertiser has to choose among:
(iv) Continuity
(v) Concentration
(vi) Flighting
(vii) Pulsing
F) A company has to decide how to allocate its advertising budget over space as well as over time:
G) Areas of dominant influence (ADIs)
H) Designated marketing areas (DMAs)
9) Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness
Most advertisers try to measure the communication effect of an ad- that is, the potential effect on awareness, knowledge, or preference. They would also like to measure the ad's sales effect.

Communication-Effect Research
Communication-effect research seeks to determine whether an ad is communicating effectively. Called copy testing, it can be done before an ad is put into media and after it is printed or broadcast.
There are three major methods of pre-testing:
)3 The consumer feedback method asks consumers for their reactions to a proposed ad
)4 Portfolio tests ask consumers to view or listen to a portfolio of advertisements, then consumers are asked to recall all the ads and their contents.
)5 Laboratory tests uses equipment to measure physiological reactions to an ad.
Many advertisers use posttests to assess the overall impact of a completed campaign.
Sales-Effect Research
Advertising's sales effect is generally harder to measure than its communication effect.
A) Sales are influenced by many factors:
1) Features
2) Price
3) Availability
4) Competitors' actions
B) The sales impact is easiest to measure in direct-marketing situations.
C) Harder to measure in brand or corporate image-building campaigns
D) Companies are generally interested in finding out whether they are overspending or under-spending on advertising.
E) A company's share of advertising expenditures produces:
1) A share of voice
2) Earns a share of consumers' minds and hearts
3) Ultimately a share of market
F) Researchers try to measure the sales impact through analyzing historical or experimental data.
G) The historical approach involves correlating past sales to past advertising expenditures.
H) Other researchers use an experimental design to measure advertising's sales impact.


Sales promotion, a key ingredient in marketing campaigns, consists of a collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade.

H) Where advertising offers a reason to buy, sales promotion offers an incentive to buy.
I) Sales promotions includes tools for:
F) Consumer promotion
G) Trade promotion
H) Business and sales-force promotion
Sales promotions tools vary in their specific objectives:
5) Sellers use incentive-type promotions to:
9) Attract new users.
10) Reward loyal customers.
11) Increase the repurchase rates of occasional users.
6) Sales promotions are often used to attract brand switchers.
7) Sales promotions used in markets of high brand similarity can produce a high sales response in the short run.
8) In markets of high brand dissimilarity, sales promotions may be able to alter market shares permanently.
9) In addition to brand switching, consumers may engage in stockpiling during sales promotions.
10) A number of sales-promotion benefits flow to manufacturers and consumers.
Sales promotions enable manufacturers to adjust short-term variations in supply and demand.
Enable manufacturers to test how high a list price they can charge.
Induce consumers to try new products.
Lead to more varied retail formats, such as the EDLP store.
11) For retailers promotions may:
G) Increase sales of complementary categories.
H) Induce some store switching by consumers.
I) Promote greater consumer awareness of prices.
J) Permit manufacturers to sell more than they would normally sell at the list price.
K) Help the manufacturer adapt programs to different consumer segment.
12) Service marketers also employ sales promotions to achieve marketing objectives:
I) To attract new customers
J) Establish loyalty.

Advertising versus Promotion
A decade ago, the advertising-to-sales promotion ratio was about 60:40. Today, in many consumer packaged-goods companies, sales promotions accounts for 75 percent of the combined budget - 50% trade and 25% consumer.
A) Sales-promotion expenditures have been increasing as a percentage of budget expenditure annually for the last two decades. Several factors contribute to this rapid growth, especially in consumer markets:
1) Promotion is now more accepted by top management as an effective sales tool.
2) More product managers are qualified to use sales-promotion tools.
3) Product managers are under greater pressure to increase current sales.
4) The number of brands has increased.
5) Competitors use promotions frequently.
6) Many brands are seen as similar.
7) Consumers are more price-orientated.
8) The trade has demanded more deals from manufacturers.
9) Advertising efficiency has declined because of rising costs, media clutter, and legal restraints.
B) The question of whether or not sales promotion weakens brand loyalty is subject to interpretation.
1) Sales promotions may devalue the product offering in buyer's mind.
C) Certain types of sales promotions can actually enhance brand image (added-value promotions).
D) There is a risk in putting a well-known brand on promotion over 30 percent of the time.
E) Dominant brands offer deals less frequently, because most deals subsidize only current users.
F) Sales promotions yield faster and more measurable responses in sales than advertising, but do not tend to yield new, long-term buyers in mature markets.
G) Loyal brand buyers tend not to change their buying patterns as a result of competitive promotion.
1) Advertising appears to be more effective at deepening brand loyalty.
H) There is also evidence that price promotions do not build permanent total-category volume.
I) Small-share competitors find it advantageous to use sales promotions because:
5) They cannot match the market leaders large advertising budgets.
6) They cannot obtain shelf space without offering trade allowance,
7) They cannot stimulate consumer trial without offering incentives.
Major Decisions
In using sales promotions, a company must establish its objectives, select the tools, develop the program, pretest the program, implement and control it, and evaluate the results.
Establishing Objectives
Sales promotion objectives are derived from broader promotion objectives that are derived from more basic marketing objectives developed for the product.
A) For consumers, objectives may include:
L) Encouraging purchase of larger-sized units
M) Building trial among nonusers
N) Attracting switchers away from competitors' brands
B) Ideally, promotions with consumers would have short-run sales impact as well as long-run brand equity effects.
C) For retailers, objectives include persuading retailers to:
9) Carry new items.
10) Higher levels of inventory
11) Encouraging off-season buying
12) Encouraging stocking of related items
13) Offsetting competitive promotions
14) Building brand loyalty
15) Gaining entry into new retail outlets
D) For the sales force, objectives include:
Encouraging support of a new product or model
Encouraging more prospecting
Stimulating off-season sales
Selecting Consumer-Promotion Tools
The promotion planner should take into account the type of market, sales-promotion objectives, competitive conditions, and each tool's cost-effectiveness.
A) We can distinguish between manufacturers' promotions and retailer promotions.
Manufactures promotions are illustrated by uses of rebates and gifts.
Retailer promotions include price cuts, feature advertising, coupons, contests, or premiums.
)D We can also distinguish between sales-promotion tools that are consumer-franchise building and reinforce the consumer's brand preference and those that do not.
)E Consumer franchise-building promotions offer the best of both worlds-they build brand equity while moving product.
)F Sales promotion seems most effective when used together with advertising.
Selecting Trade-Promotion Tools

Manufacturers use a number of trade-promotion tools, a higher proportion of the promotion pie is devoted to trade-promotion tools than to consumer promotion

A) Manufacturers award money to the trade:
8) To persuade the retailer or wholesaler to carry the brand
9) To persuade the retailer or wholesaler to carry more units than the normal amount
10) To induce retailers to promote the brand by featuring, displaying, and reducing prices.
11) To stimulate retailers and their sales clerks to push the product
B) The growing power of large retailers has increased their ability to demand trade promotions at the expense of consumer promotion and advertising.
C) Manufacturers face several challenges in managing trade promotions:
1) They often find it difficult to police retailers.
a. Manufacturers are increasingly insisting on proof of performance before paying allowance.
2) More retailers are doing forward buying-buying a greater quantity during the deal period than they can sell during the deal period.
3) Retailers are doing more diverting.
a. Manufacturers are trying to handle forward buying and diverting by limiting the amount that they will sell at a discount.
Selecting Business-and Sales-Force-Promotion Tools
Companies spend billions of dollars on business-and-sales force promotion tools. These tools are used to gather business leads, impress, and reward customers, and motivate the sales force to greater effort.
Developing the Program
In planning sales-promotion programs, marketers are increasingly blending several media into a total campaign concept.
A) In deciding to use a particular incentive, marketers have several factors to consider:
1) The size of the incentive
2) The conditions for participation
3) The duration of the promotion
4) The distribution vehicle
5) The timing of the promotion
6) The total sales-promotion budget
Pretesting, Implementing, Controlling, and Evaluating the Program
Pretests can determine if the tools are appropriate, the incentive size optimal, and the presentation method efficient. Most sales-promotion programs are designed on the basis of experience.
16. Marketing managers must prepare implementation and control plans for each individual promotion that cover lead-time and sell-in time.
17. Lead-time is the time necessary to prepare the program prior to launching it.
18. Sell-in time begins with the promotional launch and ends when the merchandise is in the hands of consumers.
19. Manufacturers can evaluate the program using three methods:
Sales data
Consumer survey
E) In general, sales promotions work best when they attract competitors' customers who switch.
1) Consumer surveys can be conducted to learn:
6) How many recall the promotion
7) What they thought of it
8) How many took advantage of it
9) How the promotion affected subsequent brand-choice behavior
F) Sales promotions can also be evaluated through experiments that vary such attributes as:
10) Incentive value
11) Duration
12) Distribution media
G) There are additional costs beyond the cost of specific promotions:
Promotions might decrease long-run brand loyalty.
Promotions can be more expensive than they appear.
There are the costs of special production runs, extra sales-force efforts, and handling requirements.
4) Certain promotions irritate retailers who may demand extra trade allowances or refuse to cooperate.

According to the IEG Sponsorship report, $14.9 billion will be spent in North America in 2007 on sponsorships of events. By becoming part of a special and more personally relevant moment in consumers' lives, involvement with events can broaden and deepen the relationship in consumers' lives.
Daily encounters with brands may also affect consumers' brand attitudes and beliefs.
Atmospheres are "packaged environments" that create or reinforce leaning toward product purchase
More firms are creating on-site or off-site product and brand experiences.
Events Objectives
Marketers report a number of reasons why they sponsor events:
A) To identify with a particular target market or life style
B) To increase awareness of company or product name
C) To create or reinforce consumer perceptions of key brand image associations
D) To enhance corporate image dimensions
E) To create experiences and evoke feelings
F) To express commitment to the community or on social issues
G) To entertain key clients or reward key employees
H) To permit merchandising or promotional opportunities
I) Despite these potential advantages, there are a number of potential disadvantages to sponsorships:
1) The success of the event can be unpredictable and out of the control of the sponsor.
2) Some consumers may still resent the commercialization of events.

Major Sponsorship Decisions
Developing successful sponsored events involves choosing the appropriate events, designing the optimal sponsorship program for the event, and measuring the effects of sponsorship.
Choosing Events
Because of the huge amount of money involved and the number of events, many marketers are becoming more strategic about which events they will get involved and the manner in which they will do so.
A) The marketing objectives and communication strategy that have been defined for the brand must be met by the event.
5) The audience delivered by the event must match the target market of the brand.
6) The event must have sufficient awareness.
7) Possess the desired image.
8) Be capable of creating the desired effect with that target market.
9) Consumers must make favorable attributions to the sponsor for its event involved.
B) An "ideal" event might be one that:
6) Audience closely matches the desired target market
7) Generates much favorable attention
8) Is unique but not encumbered with many sponsors
9) Lends itself to ancillary marketing activities
10) Reflects or enhances the brand or corporate image of the sponsor.
C) More and more firms are also using their names to sponsor the arenas, stadiums, and other venues that actually hold the event.

Designing Sponsorship Programs
Many marketers believe that it is the marketing program accompanying an event sponsorship that ultimately determines its success
E) At least 2 to 3 times the amount of the sponsorship expenditure should be spent on related marketing activities.
F) Event creation is a particularly important skill in publicizing fund-raising drives for non-profit organizations.
Measuring Sponsorship Activities
As with public relations, measurement of events is difficult .
A) There are two basic approaches to measuring the effects of sponsorship activities:
D) Supply-side method focuses on potential exposure to the brand by assessing the extent of media coverage.
E) Demand-side method focuses on reported exposure from consumers.
B) Supply-side methods attempt to approximate the amount of time or space devoted to media coverage of an event
6) This measure of potential "impressions" is then translated into an equivalent "value" in advertising dollars according to the fees associated in actually advertising in the particular media vehicle.
7) This methods validity can be questioned:
h. In equating media coverage with advertising exposure the content of the respective communications consumers receive is ignored.
i. Advertisers use media space and time to communicate a strategically designed message: Media coverage and telecasts only expose the brand and do not necessarily embellish its meaning in any direct way.
C) The demand-side method attempts to identify the effects sponsorship has on consumers' brand knowledge.
1) Tracking or customized surveys can explore the ability of the event sponsors want to affect by:
F) Awareness
G) Attitudes
H) Sales
Creating Experiences

A large part of local, grassroots marketing is experiential marketing, which not only communicates features and benefits, but also connects a product or service with unique and interesting experiences.


Not only must the company relate constructively to customers, suppliers, and dealers, it must also relate to a large number of interested publics.
K) A public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company's ability to achieve its objectives.
L) Public relations (PR) involves a variety of programs designed to promote or protect a company's image to its individual products.
M) The wise company takes concrete steps to manage successful relations with its key publics.
N) Most companies have a public-relations department that monitors the attitudes of the organizations' publics and distributes information and communications to build goodwill.
O) PR departments perform the following five functions:
10) Press relations
11) Product publicity
12) Corporate communications
13) Lobbying
14) Counseling
Marketing Public Relations
Many companies are turning to marketing public relations (MPR) to support corporate or product promotion and image making.
A) The old name for MPR was publicity that was seen as the task of securing editorial space to promote or "hype" a product, service, idea, etc.
B) MPR goes beyond simple publicity and plays an important role in the following tasks:
1) Launching new products
2) Repositioning a mature product
3) Building interest in a product category
4) Influencing specific target groups
5) Defending products that have encountered public problems
6) Building the corporate image in a way that reflects favorably on its products
C) As the power of mass advertising weakens, marketing managers are turning to MPR to build awareness and brand knowledge for both new and established products.
D) MPR is also effective in blanketing local communities and reaching specific groups.
E) MPR must be planned jointly with advertising.
F) Creative public relations can affect public awareness at a fraction of the cost of advertising.
G) Some experts say that consumers are five times more likely to be influenced by editorial copy than by advertising.
Major Decisions in Marketing PR

In considering when and how to use MPR, management must establish the marketing objectives, choose the PR messages and vehicles, implement the plan carefully, and evaluate the results.
MPR can:

4) Build awareness by placing stores in the media to bring attention to a product, service, person, organization, or idea.
5) It can build credibility by communication the message in an editorial context.
6) It can help boost sales-force and dealer enthusiasm with stores about a new product before it is launched.
7) It can hold down promotion costs because MPR costs less than direct mail and media advertising.
Choosing Message and Vehicles

The MPR manager must identify or develop interesting stories about the product.
A) Each event is an opportunity to develop a multitude of stories directed at different audiences.
B) The best MPR practitioners are able to find or create stories even for mundane or out-of-fashion product.
Implementing the Plan and Evaluating Results
MPRs contribution to the bottom line is difficult to measure, because it is used along with other promotional tools.
A) The three most commonly used measures of MPR effectiveness are:
7) Number of exposures
8) Awareness, comprehension, or attitude change
9) Contribution to sales and profits
B) The easiest measure of MPR effectiveness is the number of exposures carried by the media.
1) This measure is not very satisfying because it contains no indication of:
H) How many people actually read, heard, or recalled the message.
I) What they thought afterward
J) Nor does it contain information on the net audience reached.
(i) It would be better to know the number of unduplicated exposures.
C) A better measure is the change in:
4) Product awareness
5) Comprehension
6) Attitude resulting from the MPR campaign
D) A better measure is the:
Change in product awareness