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Time for intuitive and evidence-based management.

Ch. 10: How much do you think it is possible for an outsider to discern about the underlying cultural values of an organization by analyzing symbols, ceremonies, dress, or other observable aspects of culture, compared to an insider with several years of work experience? Select a percentage (e.g., 10%, 70%) and discuss your reasoning.

An insider will know the culture much more than an outsider. The insider will know about 80 percent of the culture while an outsider about 10 to 20 percent. For the insider it depends what position they work in. A manager will likely know much more about the companies culture than a computer technician. The outsider will never know as much as an insider because an organizations culture has two levels. On the surface are visible artifacts and observable behaviors - the ways people dress and act, the type of control systems and power structures used by the company, and the symbols, stories, and ceremonies organization member share (Daft, 2008, p. 375). The outsider is only able to somewhat learn the observable behaviors and will never learn the underlying values. These underlying values, assumptions, beliefs, and thought processes operate unconsciously to define the true culture (Daft, 2008, p. 375). Only by spending long hours at work among other employees can someone learn the underlying values.

Ch. 11: A noted organization theorist said, "Pressure for change originates in the environment. Pressure for stability originates within the organization. "Do you agree?" Discuss.

Pressure for change does originate in the environment while pressure for stability originates within the organization. There are several environmental forces that effect change. Powerful forces associated with advancing technology, international economic integration, the maturing of domestic markets, and the shift to capitalism in formerly communist regions have brought about a globalized economy that affects every business, from the largest to the smallest, creating more threats as well as more opportunities (Daft, 2008, p. 412). Today unlike in the past change is occurring much faster which is causing organizations to respond to have stability. Many organizations are responding to global forces by adopting self-directed teams and horizontal structures that enhance communication and collaboration, streamlining supply and distribution channels, and overcoming barriers of time and place through IT and e-business (Daft, 2008, p. 412).

Ch. 12: If managers frequently use experience and intuition to make complex, non programmed decisions, how do they apply evidence-based management, which seems to suggest that managers should rely on facts and data?

There is a time for intuitive and evidence-based management. Depending on the situation either one can be used. In intuitive decision making, experience and judgment rather than sequential logic or explicit reasoning are used to make decisions (Daft, 2008, p. 458). Intuitive decisions should not be done by managers with no experience. When managers use their intuition based on long experience with organizational issues, they more rapidly perceive and understand problems, and they develop a gut feeling or hunch about which alternative will solve a problem, speeding the decision-making process (Daft, 2008, p. 458). An experienced manager should always use an evidence-based decisions if the time allows and if the decision may be a costly one. Evidence-based management means a commitment to make more informed and intelligent decisions based on the best available facts and evidence (Daft, 2008, p. 458). Managers practice evidence-based decision making by being careful and thoughtful rather than carelessly relying on assumptions, past experience, rules of thumb, or intuition (Daft, 2008, p. 458). Evidence-based decision making is not as easy as it sounds. In order for evidence-based management to take root, managers must be exposed to, understand, and embrace scientific evidence (Charlier, 2011, p. 223). Which is why not too many managers use evidence-based decisions. Furthermore, since the first choice of most managers seeking information is to consult with other managers, and since extremely few managers read academic publications, the question of how to inform managers about scientific evidence remains open (Charlier, 2011, p. 223).

Ch. 13: In a rapidly changing organization, are decisions more likely to be made using the rational or political model of organization?

This all depends on the organization. If the if everyone in the organization is accepting change or if the change is moving along slowly then the rational model can be used. When goals are in alignment, there is little differentiation, departments are characterized by pooled interdependence, and resources seem abundant, managers can use a rational model of organization (Daft, 2008, p. 497). If the change is not accepted or if the change is very quick than a political model needs to be used. Political model is used when differences are great, organization groups have separate interests, goals, and values (Daft, 2008, p. 497). Change may bring a great deal of disagreement and conflict which is what the political model is good for.


Charlier, S., Brown, K., & Rynes, S. (2011, June). Teaching evidence-based management in MBA programs: what evidence is there? Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10(2), 222-236.

Daft, R. (2008). Organization theory and design (10th ed.). South-Western: Mason, OH, 2004.